Taxi Gallery – Taxi, TaxiCab, Taxis, Taxis in Carlisle, Taxi in Carlisle


Taxi from Carlisle

Taxi from Carlisle if you have never tried to use Carlisle taxi service, then you are going to want to give it a shot. This is one of the best places to go if you need a cab ride for any reason. Even though the cost isn’t cheap, you can guarantee that this is the place to go for that long-awaited trip to the airport and for anywhere else that you might need a taxi. Taxis and Taxis in Carlisle is very interesting. This is to check how we are getting on. Taxi has 4 seats for passengers. It is very easy to travel like a baby with a baby and along with the baby. I am just typing this and if you are still reading it you will go insane. Seriously I am doing some experiment, my friend. I just want to check if this works. If it works you know my email ID and et me know. I am sure you should not get this page but if you get it you should go to Brampton for a holiday. Take our taxi which is free for people like you who read this after telling the truth. That makes sense. The question is are you still there waiting for a taxi?

Taxi does not come on time

T8 Seater Taxi

Taxi from Carlisle if you have never tried to use Carlisle taxi service, then you are going to want to give it a shot. This is one of the best places to go if you need a cab ride for any reason. Even though the cost isn’t cheap, you can guarantee that this is the place to go for that long-awaited trip to the airport and for anywhere else that you might need a taxi. Taxis and Taxis in Carlisle is very interesting. This is to check how we are getting on. Taxi has 4 seats for passengers. It is very easy to travel like a baby with a baby and along with the baby. I am just typing this and if you are still reading it you will go insane. Seriously I am doing some experiment, my friend. I just want to check if this works. If it works you know my email ID and et me know. I am sure you should not get this page but if you get it you should go to Brampton for a holiday. Take our taxi which is free for people like you who read this after telling the truth. That makes sense. The question is are you still there waiting for a taxi?

8 seater taxi – 01228 812612

Taxi from Carlisle to Penrith

Taxi fro Carlisle to Penrith will charge you £40 in the day time.

Taxi from Carlisle station to Carlisle Airport

Carlisle airport is located in the northeast part of England. It is a major transportation hub for those who travel to the city of Manchester and the surrounding areas in the UK. The airport is well known for being one of the busiest airports in the entire United Kingdom. With so many people flying into the area, this means that there is a high demand for taxis to get around.

7 Seater Taxi In Carlisle

You can get to Carlisle from other parts of the UK through a variety of methods. However, getting a cab ride from the airport to the city is a different story entirely. This is where Carlisle taxi service comes in. They have a huge fleet of cabs waiting to be driven to you at the airport.

Taxi fro Carlisle to airport

The reason that this service is so popular with travellers is that they allow you to pick up a taxi right at the airport. The staff at the Carlisle taxi service knows that the amount of people who are heading to the airport at any given time is going to change. They know that as people head into town, they are going to have to get a taxi so they can get to their hotel.

They also know that if a group needs to get cabs together, the first cab is going to be full. In order to make sure that everyone gets a cab, they have a waitlist. Once a person has been on the waitlist for a certain amount of time, they are out of luck and will have to wait until another group comes along to take them home.

Taxi Benefits

Another taxi benefit of this type of service is that the cabs are very clean. There are no dirt, grease, or bugs that you could possibly find in a cab outside a large company that is willing to have people wait hours or days for a cab. This is a large investment for the company and they only want to make sure that your safety is being protected while they deliver the car to your destination.

Carlisle Taxi Service

You can even get your own taxi from this Carlisle taxi service if you don’t want to pay for a cab from the airport. They will pick you up at your hotel and bring you back to the airport. This is usually at the end of your stay, but some people choose to leave town the day after they arrive. If you don’t have any plans to stay overnight, you may not want to take the taxi back home.

A taxi ride from Carlisle

You should definitely consider trying to get a taxi ride from the airport to Carlisle. You won’t be disappointed with the service that is offered to you will be glad that you got one from this service.

Taxi Service from Carlisle

While the cost of a taxi service from the airport can be quite a bit higher than what you would pay from regular cab service, it is still affordable. If you plan on staying in the area for more than a few days, you might want to consider getting a car rental instead.

Type of Taxi

You should know that there are different types of taxi services that are available to you. A lot of people choose to take the taxi service because they know that the cost is much cheaper, but this doesn’t mean that they will have the best experience.

Airport taxi

If you go to an airport to pick up a cab, it is best to go to the Carlisle taxi service instead. When you go to a car hire company in town, it is best to go to a car hire company that will give you the best service and allow you to pick up a taxi right at the airport.

Nearest taxi to me

Nearest taxi to me was at Carlisle train station.

Carlisle train station, or more formally known as Carlisle Castle, is a Grade I listed railway station servicing the town of Carlisle, Cumbria, in England. It is on the East Coast Main line, 101 miles to the south east of Glasgow, and 299 miles to the north west of London, Euston.

A small town of only one square mile, it is also home to the Castle of Carlisle. This medieval building has a moat and walled gardens with a tower and a large gatehouse. It is protected by a three-foot fence from horse and human trespassers.

This railway line was opened in 1875 by the East Coast railway company. A passenger depot facility was also built nearby. The station is now serviced by six Class 1 coach/taxi cars, four double-decker buses, and a taxi service. The train also runs on the Cumbrian railway line.

The service has its origins in 1852 when it was first used to transport soldiers. Since then, it has evolved to become the main travel hub for people travelling within the county. In the past, it was used to ferry fishermen from the coast to their local fishing spots. Today, it is one of the main means of travel into Cumbria from the rest of England.

For those looking to drive in the county, the journey takes less than half an hour. From Carlisle station, the main roads are usually busy, but there are some quieter sections where you may be able to find taxis. However, if you do end up finding one, remember that taxis are expensive in Cumbria and are only available at peak times.

The area of Cumbria is one of the most beautiful in England with lush green countryside, historic castles, picturesque beaches, and lovely villages and towns. If you are looking for something a bit different, look at the picturesque River Cumbria. There are some beautiful cottages for rent at many of the villages, which can be walked on.

When planning to visit Carlisle, it is best to hire a vehicle. This way, you can explore all the attractions of the area without having to drive to them, which is what people tend to do when they travel from elsewhere in the United Kingdom. As most of the major attractions are close enough to take a car, it can be very affordable, especially during the summer months.

One of the main attractions of Carlisle is the Royal Mile, the area surrounding the cathedral, the town’s national museum and the town’s National Maritime Museum. You can also tour Cumbria’s Castle of Carlstone if you wish.

It is also possible to rent a car from the railway station and travel to the other areas of the county that have a railway link. There are various different types of cars to choose from, such as small cars with seats just enough for two, or luxury cars with fully upholstered seats.

If you do not need the luxury car hire, you may prefer to rent a smaller and more economical car. These can often be hired from the airport and you can also use your own.

Once you are there, it is easy to get around town as the streets are relatively narrow. A taxi in a busy city is likely to cost more than the same journey by car from the airport. So, don’t forget to factor this into your budget.

The journey from the airport to Carlisle station is one of the most beautiful journeys you will make in the UK, so taking a taxi is always going to be the cheapest way to travel. The weather is pleasant and the countryside stunning, so take your time and enjoy yourself.

Taxi near me

Why are there so many taxi companies out there that want a taxi permit? There is a really good reason why you’ll find so many different taxi companies out there. It all dates back again to tax revenue.

Taxis have been required to find a license from the DMV in order to work. Why do so many taxis still RunOn v 8 engines? The primary rationale is that cab businesses need cabs to perform on certain paths, but it just takes drivers to turn on the air conditioning if your passenger wants it. The downside of the circumstance is that these routes tend to be expensive and for that reason the taxi companies can charge a lot more for a ride.

7 Seater Taxi In Carlisle

If a business cannot bill the client a commission for each ride they offer, then a corporation might have to think about hiring their very own fleet of taxis or buying a public transportation system to form the difference. One of the ways they are planning on achieving this is by simply purchasing a fleet of cars. These cars will then be used to serve various clients. This can then allow them to make money off the customers who arrived at their own organization enterprise.

Taxi fleet

Once you buy a fleet of cars, it is going to run you a pretty penny. It costs a bit more than a million dollars to get a single vehicle. Although it may look to be a lot for you right now, whenever you take a look at it on the long term, it is probably going to save your company money. As a company owner, you want to earn money from the medium and short terms, however, when it concerns the near future, you have to think taxi near me about what you can do in order to improve your bottom line, taxi near me not eliminate money.

Taxi Website

It would still be a good idea to take a look at online sites taxi near me which will aid you in finding a fleet of cab for sale. Some web sites will list any available cars which are now being leased at the time, others will let you look for certain vehicles which are increasingly being leased.

Taxi Company

A cab company is a small business which must look taxi near me closely at the present market conditions, and what is going on later on. When a company does not look after their vehicles, then they can suffer a lot of financial problems in the future. You will see them folding up their operations completely, if they are not attentive. Automobile company vehicles might be very profitable if you know how to buy them at the ideal price and maintain them in good condition.

Taxi to Whitehaven

Finding the Right Taxi For Your Event

If you are looking for a cheap limo in the UK, then this article will give you some good information about where to look, and which company to book with. Most of the companies will have an online website so you can easily book from there, even if you don’t live in that particular area.

The company should be registered and licensed in your area so you can check it out. The website should also provide contact details for their insurance company so you can ask them questions. This is especially important if the Taxi is carrying heavy luggage as it could cost a lot of money in the event of any damage to a third party.

The website should also list the vehicle type and colour. If they are carrying a very large group, then they should also provide details about how many passengers they can accommodate.

Most of the companies will include insurance in their price of the Taxi service but you may want to check this out further. Many of these companies may also offer a complimentary drink or meal, so this may help to reduce the overall cost of the travel.

Booking a service via the internet is easy. All you have to do is enter your location, and whether you wish to reserve it for the night or day. You can also choose the number of people who will be travelling with you and the length of time you wish the trip to last. The prices will vary depending on the size of the group and whether you wish to reserve it at night or day.

If you have never booked a limo before, then this is probably the best way to find the right one. Most companies will take on a group and they should be able to offer advice about how to make a booking online.

A cheap limo will ensure that your journey is stress free and enjoyable. Make sure that you go over all the services that the company provides and make sure that they are all listed on the website. If the price of the service is too good to be true, then you may want to go with someone else.

Also make sure that you research the company thoroughly before you book, especially if you are flying into that area on business. You should be able to find plenty of reviews and other information about the company online so that you can make sure you get the best possible deal for your needs.

Comfort in the taxi

Comfort Cab

Inspired vehicle design has created even greater driver comfort. The carefully sculpted driver’s seat comes with active, pump-action height and tilt adjustment which, combined with steering column adjustment, allow you to create your optimum driving position.

E7’s top-specification driver’s seat even provides additional lumbar support – perfect for anyone who spends long hours behind the wheel. In addition the low, one-step well is also ideal for anyone who gets in and out of the cab several times a day.

Electric one-touch windows, multi-function heater and air conditioning – all as standard features – mean you’re sure to find the right working temperature, whatever the weather.  The in-built CD/radio comes with remote controls, handily located on the steering column.  You can even choose to play front and rear speakers or switch to front only, so you can enjoy your favourite music while your passengers chat amongst themselves. Plus, for even greater convenience, the E7™ taxi now also features our unique new FareAssist™ quick release door system.  This means you can unlatch your passenger doors at the touch of a button.

Storage Space in the taxi

You’ll also find numerous storage areas for the daily essentials of the working taxi driver.  In addition to overhead lockers, door cubbies and under-seat pockets the centre console storage bin is sure to come in handy, as will the dashboard mounted retractable cup holders.

7 seater taxi revisited

7 seater taxi from Carlisle Taxi has already revolutionised the UK’s hackney taxi market. Now Carlisle Taxi and Carlisle Taxis Limited bring you a new generation, tailor-made for the professional taxi driver with the latest in Euro 5 diesel technology under the bonnet. Designed and manufactured jointly by Peugeot and Cab Direct, reliability and performance are hallmarks of the E7’s success in the hard-working UK hackney taxi fleet. The secret of that success lies in a vehicle that is genuinely purpose-built, combining a class-leading engine, drive train and vehicle body, all designed to work in perfect harmony. 7 seater taxi and 8 seater taxi can carry 7 and 8 taxi passengers excluding the taxi driver.

Taxi Development:

A £473 million development programme has created the ideal combination of engine, clutch and gearbox, designed and tested in tandem with the E7’s high-strength monocoque vehicle body. Modern design excellence is carried through to the superb driving position, high impact partition screen and comfortable rear passenger compartment to complete the ideal hackney taxi.

Side rubbing strips and large, multi-section bumpers provide vital protection against minor bumps and scrapes. And unlike many other taxis, the E7™ comes to you with the reassurance of the highest possible standard of safety testing – European Whole Vehicle Type Approval (Type Approval number e11*2001/116*0315

Comfort Cab

Inspired vehicle design has created even greater driver comfort. The carefully sculpted driver’s seat comes with active, pump-action height and tilt adjustment which, combined with steering column adjustment, allow you to create your optimum driving position.

E7’s top-specification driver’s seat even provides additional lumbar support – perfect for anyone who spends long hours behind the wheel. In addition the low, one-step well is also ideal for anyone who gets in and out of the cab several times a day.

Taxi from Carlisle to Hexam

As Hexham‘s very own Airport Taxi Transfer Service specialising in transfers to Newcastle Airport, we are acutely aware of how vital it is to arrive in plenty of time to catch that all important flight. That’s why you can relax in the knowledge that when you book our taxi service to take you to Newcastle Airport, we will pick you up on time whatever the hour of day or night. We can also provide a meet and greet service if required. Your driver will be waiting at Newcastle Airport Arrivals with a name board bearing the passenger name. The next time you book with our taxi service to take you to Newcastle Airport, why not also book your return taxi journey at the same time. We will check the live Newcastle Airport arrivals information online to ensure that we arrive at the right time to meet you from your flight. All you need to do is call us when you have collected your baggage and your driver will pull straight into the pickup point outside of Newcastle International Airport for you. We also serve Durham Tees Valley Airport, Edinburgh Airport, Glasgow Airport, Carlisle Airport, London Heathrow, London Stansted, Luton Airport, Leeds Bradford Airport, Manchester Airport and Liverpool Airport amongst others.

Taxi from Brampton

Every taxi trip to and from different locations outside the three main zones requires a fixed rate. This is based on the type of taxi service you are dealing with, including a destination and the time of day. Some taxi companies are willing to let you know what the exact fare is for the trip ahead of time.

All cab services to and from major destinations outside of the three main zones should be charged at a metered rate. For instance, a cab from a downtown Denver hotel going to Union Station should use the meter to charge the fare. If it is not a meter, then the fare will be calculated at the time the car is picked up by the customer. If you are late picking up the cab, or if the cab company has a minimum fare, you may end up paying more than expected. The reason for this is that cab companies want to make sure that they get paid.

Most taxi cab companies allow you to know how much you can expect to spend in your car after you arrive at the airport. This includes a flat rate fee for the whole trip, as well as any charges based on the length of time it takes to get to your final destination. It is also a good idea to ask the taxi company if the trip can be extended and the cab company should be able to tell you this information. Some of the better companies allow passengers to pay a flat rate before they board the car. Then, they are billed based on how long it takes for them to reach their destination. When you pay this flat rate, you have complete control over how much you spend.

If you need to call for a cab when it’s time to get to your destination, you will be charged a flat rate, and that will be determined at the time you call. You should also ask if they have any hidden charges that will apply once you get to your destination. For instance, if your trip takes longer than you thought, they may increase the rate until you reach your destination safely. They may also add on any taxes or fees required at the airport and you might have to pay an additional fee for these added fees.

If you travel out of town frequently, you will probably have to deal with a variety of different prices for the same cab. Many companies have a daily rate, weekly rate, monthly rate and yearly rate to choose from. You can find these rates listed in yellow pages advertising, in the yellow page magazines, or by contacting different companies directly. If you don’t know the difference in prices, don’t feel bad about asking them. In fact, it is actually a good thing to know what the differences are between different types of taxis to save money on future trips. When choosing a taxi company, don’t forget to ask for the price of their daily and annual rates, along with other specials.

Once you find the best deal for you, the only thing left to do is to pick up the phone and make the call. When you call, mention the special deal you found and the taxi will bring you to your destination.

Taxi on a Macro Level

Carlisle Taxi App

has a wide array of services that are provided by a professional organization to its clients. Whether you’re an individual or a small business owner trying to find a suitable taxi service, this taxi booking service is the best choice for your company requirements. This is because it provides you with a complete service and allows you to book a taxi effortlessly.

Taxi

Taxi – provide a wheelchair accessible taxi that’s eight and 7 seaters, with a comfortable cab. Additionally it is helpful for medical appointments and special occasions in Carlisle. This is the sort of information that you’ll get from using the internet to search for a taxi service close to you. You’ll be provided with a comprehensive list of taxi services available in the neighborhood of your location.

Tourist Taxi

Tourist Taxi- provides a selection of alternatives for you to choose from when choosing a taxi. They are ideal for business travellers, tourists, and tourists. They offer an excellent range of taxis for the duration of your journey.

Taxi hire

Taxi hire – provides you with a whole list of cars, coaches and buses. They are ideal for those travelling on short trips and for people who are travelling for an extended stay. They also offer you with unique kinds of limousines, like stretch, SUV, minivan, sedan, coupe etc.. The list is extremely comprehensive and contains all the major car hire firms.

Taxi Providers

Taxi provides you with several sorts of luxury cars, including Sorento, Rolls Royce, Hummer, Jaguar etc. in a variety of models and types. They supply the latest, high tech, and the maximum class luxury vehicles at competitive rates. They also offer you wonderful customer care services that are worth mentioning.

Taxis provide a number of choices for individuals and companies. You are able to book a cab in any area of the town, according to your convenience and tastes. You can use them to travel from one location to another, in addition to from one airport to another.

If you are a businessperson who needs to travel frequently, a professional taxi company can assist you in finding the best options. By supplying you with a complete listing of options, based on your choice, and requirements.

Taxi Booking

Taxi booking gives a wide range of services. It offers a complete collection of limousines, from budget to luxury, as well as the most expensive and lavish ones can be found on the market. Booking a cab is not a difficult job and is free from hassle. Just log onto the internet website of this company and provide the necessary information and all of the details about your journey.

Booking a taxi

Booking a taxi is not a complicated job, but it’s best that you read the fine print before you start the booking. You should be very aware about the rules and regulations of the town, which vary from 1 place to another.

Taxi Season

This year marks Taxi season two. This Emmy-award winning sitcom follows the daily lives of a gang of taxi drivers in New York City. The characters of the sitcom are all cab drivers, but each is portrayed by a completely different character. The main employees of the Sunshine Cab Association are Bobby (Kelsey Grammer), struggling boxer Tony, struggling poet Elaine, ex-convict Alex, and crooked dispatcher Louis (Joe Mantegna).

For each of the characters of this sitcom, there’s always the hope that life will get better with time. Alex wants to quit his job so he can move to L.A. and try his hand at acting. Tony hopes to get back into the game he left so long ago with his partner/buddy Bobby. And Jerry, the only cab driver with a sense of humor, wants to get back to work.

However, life in the year twenty-two (as depicted on the show) goes by in a heartbeat and it’s easy to see how each member of this year’s rookie class, which includes both Tony and Bobby, are doomed to failure. Bobby’s dream of going to L.A. as a movie star is dashed because of his lack of acting skills. Alex, desperate to make money, loses his temper on the job.

Jerry, having finally gotten his act together, finally gets in a bar to have a drink with Tony. As a result, Alex is able to come up with the nerve to confront him about the fact that Tony hasn’t paid his bills in six months.

Meanwhile, Alex and Jerry spend the evening trying to make the owner of a limousine happy so he’ll give them a limo service. But when Tony learns that Jerry is planning to rob the establishment, he’s devastated.

Meanwhile, Bobby is not doing so well in the public eye. While he tries to get a position as a news anchor, he winds up at a press conference where the reporter tells a story about a drunk driver who was hit by a taxi. Bobby then decides to take care of the problem himself.

Meanwhile, Alex finally finds a way to become more involved in the news, thanks to his friendship with Luis. He starts hanging around on the board of directors of different businesses. He also joins a charity club but ends up getting fired after one bad mistake.In the second season, there’s a great deal of tension between Luis and Alex because they’re constantly at odds. At the end of the first season, they finally learn that they are more alike than they had previously thought, as Luis ends up moving to Los Angeles with a big role on his hands.

Bobby returns to L.A. and realizes that he has some unfinished business in New York. He takes a job as an accountant and meets Alex, who wants to help him get his act together. When the two men finally meet, Bobby realizes that Alex isn’t all that he seems. and ends up letting him know.

When Bobby finally gets a chance to get in the limo business, he hires Bobby’s assistant, Luis. Meanwhile, Alex discovers that Bobby is being blackmailed by someone in the background who wants him to sell tickets to a concert by a famous musician. After the gig, Alex goes to police headquarters to confront the man.

Luis soon realizes that the man is a criminal known as Mr. X, who wants to use his power to help him steal money from other people. Bobby goes to Los Angeles to confront Mr. X and ends up helping Alex. to finally defeat him.

The third season continues the same theme. Bobby finally gets in control of his career, while Alex suffers from pressure from someone in the background.

If you are taking up business travel, you will have to offer some essential information and the taxicab will charge you accordingly. So, as to offer you the best experience while travelling.

One of the most important aspects of your journey is safety. So you should ensure that your driver is completely trained to drive and gets the necessary license, and is equipped with proper safety equipment. The most significant aspect of your taxi is that it is a must-have for all the business travellers.

For those who have chosen a reliable vehicle, then your small business or pleasure travels won’t be delayed because of any reason. You should have a good and safe journey.

Radi Taxi

Is Radi Taxis still running in Carlisle? In this article, we are going to discuss the reasons why you may be concerned about how the taxi industry is in Carlisle and where Radi Taxis is situated in town.

Taxi Companies

The taxi companies in Carlisle are run by the same company that is known as the National Taxi Authority. The company is controlled by the Government, and the main aim of the authority is to protect the public and to ensure the safety of passengers. The company also runs the yellow and green lights and they are both legal in Carlisle.

Illegal Taxis

It is illegal for taxis to pick up customers who are not registered passengers from a public transport point. The taxi companies are not allowed to pick up customers in the street and they are only allowed to pick up customers at designated areas such as airports and railway stations.

Radi Taxis

We believe that Radi Taxis is only operating in Carlisle because of the way that the company is run. There are very few complaints and this is because the company has put strict regulations in place and they are enforcing them. It is very easy to get a cab in Carlisle because the local authorities and the taxi companies have been very strict.

Taxi Complaints

We believe that the lack of complaints from customers is due to the fact that the Radi Taxis drivers are well trained and they know exactly what they are doing. There is no confusion and they know exactly how to pick up customers.

The taxi companies are aware of the regulations and they are also aware of the fact that the company is regulated by the government. They know that they have to obey all the rules and regulations and this is why they have not received any complaints from customers. The taxi companies have to follow all the rules and regulations of the company.

The taxi companies have also taken action against customers who have been using Radi Taxis to break the rules and regulations. For example, there have been complaints against customers who have been to pick up customers who were on their way to an appointment.

Taxi Customers

Many customers do not like the idea of using radio taxis. The customer satisfaction survey conducted by Radi Taxis Limited in Carlisle has found that more than 50% of customers do not feel safe using taxis in town. This is why they believe that the taxi industry is in a mess and that the best solution for the public is to have a tax system where a driver is able to contact a customer and get information.

Taxi System

The taxi system is not the only thing that has been made available for people to use. The driver can also contact the customer if the customer needs to get help and this is done through text messages. The customer can send a message through the Radi Taxi website to the driver and this can be done on the night, in the morning or in the early hours of the morning.

Taxi Improvement

This is a big improvement over the traditional methods that the taxi drivers were using before. The Radi Taxi website allows customers to contact the taxi company if they need any help or assistance when they are in need of a cab and the taxi company can contact the customer.

Taxi Website

The taxi website has also enabled customers to see the cab that they are hiring and they can also request a car of the type that they are looking for. They can specify how many passengers that they want in the taxi and they can specify the size and the type of car that they are looking for.

Radi Taxi Limited

The website of the Radi Taxi Limited in Carlisle is user friendly and easy to navigate and the information that is provided is clear and easy to understand. The website also allows users to see whether the company has a website in their local area.

Taxi Journey

Whether you want to go out of town or into town, a taxi can get you where you want to go. However, if you are interested in knowing how to choose a taxi and how to get a good deal on the taxi, you should read this article.

First, you need to know what you are looking for in a taxi. If you want a taxi that can give you a comfortable ride while providing you with reliable and safe transportation, you will need a taxi that has all the amenities that you want in your ride.

Taxi Passengers

You will need to decide how many passengers you will need to transport. Some people need only one passenger and will not need any more than that, while other people will need more passengers to move around, but will not need any more than that. If you are the type of person who will be transporting someone more than once, you may want to choose a taxi that will give you an option to select the number of passengers you want to transport.

Taxi Group Travel

If you are going to be traveling in a group, you will need to decide what you will be transporting. If you are going to be traveling to the same destination as someone else who will need a taxi, you may want to consider a taxi that can take care of all of the needs of the group. However, if you are traveling to a destination that is far from the one you are traveling to, you may want to choose a taxi that is more capable of handling several needs.

Taxi Services – What you want

Next, you will need to decide what services you want. You will need to know whether you will be able to request a cab for any type of reason. You may want to request a cab if you want to have a cab service during your wedding, and you may want a cab if you are going on business travel. You may also want to request a cab for your personal reasons, and you may want to request a taxi if you want to be able to have your own transportation while traveling to and from work.

Taxi type – Decide the type of taxi you want

You may also want to decide what type of car you want to get. Some people will choose a limousine to take them to a destination, while others will choose a standard car or a compact car to take them to their destination. You may also want to consider a taxi that is a minivan or a sedan for people who are going to be driving their own cars while they are traveling with the taxi.

Taxi Companies near you

Next, you will want to find out which companies offer the types of services that you are looking for. Some companies will only offer cab rides, while other companies will offer other types of services.

In order to find the best company for your needs, you may want to try several different companies. You can compare rates and features of the different companies. You may even want to check with the Better Business Bureau to make sure that the company you are considering does not have any complaints against it.

You may even want to choose between several companies. If you have several children, you may want to choose a taxi that has a babysitter option. This will allow you to have someone waiting to watch your children while you are travelling.

You may also want to make sure that the company that you choose has a lot of experience. You can check with your friends and family for companies that they have used. If you know people that use a taxi, you can ask them if the company is reliable and safe.

It is also important that you find out the hours that the company is open. You may want to check to find out when the company is open at certain times of the day, as well as on certain days of the week. You will want to make sure that you can pick up your car on time, and get a ride as soon as you need it. You may even want to make sure that you can make multiple pickups and drop offs, if that is something that you need in your daily life.

Best time to drive the taxi

Weekends are always good times to drive in Bath. Driving on Saturday generally means you make about 53% more than driving Monday-Thursday. If you want to boost your earnings, make the most of the weekend crowds. The best areas to drive in change depending on the day of the week and the time of day.
Below you’ll find information on some great places to drive if you’re looking to make great earnings. We’ve also highlighted the best times to drive, depending on what day and what time it is.

Taxi journey in E7

E7’s spacious passenger compartment promises your customers a relaxing journey, every fare.

Excellent road-holding and modern suspension guarantee passengers a flat and comfortable ride. Inside, comfortable facing seating accommodates six passengers in the rear compartment. Plus, with the addition of our new soft-sit rear tip-up seats, your customers will now enjoy even greater comfort levels. Finished to the highest quality using proven, hard-wearing material, the passenger area also benefits from separately controlled heating. Similarly the dash-mounted EasyTalk™ two-way intercom – uniquely designed for the E7™ with variable audio control – makes communication easy. Business passengers can even plug in their laptop as they enjoy the journey.

Taxi Bags of Space

Whether it’s hotels, train stations or airport runs, today’s passengers often come with plenty of luggage. Which is why E7™ brings you an amazing 70% more luggage space. Even better, the celebrated EasySlide™ rear seat enables you to create even more room for loading cases out of harm’s way. For added storage choose an additional luggage pen up front beside the driver. You also have the option of the E7™ Plus, with even greater luggage room – ideal for regular airport fares.

Taxi Safety Zone

Sadly, protection from violence against taxi drivers is becoming ever more important. The steel reinforced partition features a high-impact protection screen tested to European standards. The driver can also choose added security by locking both front doors while the rear doors remain open for passengers.

Taxi Models

E7 S E7 SE E7 XS
2 litre HDi diesel engine
6-speed gearbox
Air conditioning
Front passenger seat
Front flip seat
Manual side step or twin running boards
Electric side step or twin running boards
Twin electric side steps or twin running boards
Rear tailgate with window and wiper
FareAssist™quick release door system
One-piece folding ramp
EasyGlide™ under-floor ramp
Self-retracting wheelchair restraints
Rear spoiler / signage
Ready-calibrated Digitax taxi meter
E7 S E7 SE E7 XS
Coin dispenser
Satellite navigation
Rear parking sensors
Jocaste velour trim
16” steel wheels plus ‘Novae’ wheel trims
16” alloy wheels
Mud flaps
Wind deflectors
Wood dash kit
EasyWipe™ rear seat covers
2 year unlimited mileage Peugeot warranty
2 year additional components warranty
1 year Peugeot Assistance cover
3 years Peugeot Assistance cover

Standard Features

Taxi Features

Full high-impact protection partition screen

Pay tray with cash tray

Separate locking of front or all doors (driver controlled)

Motion-activated automatic door locking

Full wheelchair access

Two-way intercom with dashboard integrated on/off, front/rear & volume controls

Front high-visibility LED taxi sign

Separately controlled rear saloon heater

EasySlide™ rear seat for additional luggage space

FareAssist™ quick release door system

Comfort & Convenience

Athermic windscreen

Variable power assisted steering

One-touch electric front windows

Electrically adjustable & heated door mirrors

2-speed + intermittent front wipers

Heated rear window with wiper

Height & reach adjustable steering wheel

Active, pump-action height and tilt adjustable driver’s seat

Lumbar support adjustment for driver’s seat

4-speed heater

Air conditioning

Full headlining

High-quality, hard-wearing ‘Leisure’ seat covers throughout

Centre console with storage bin

Overhead, dash & under seat storage

Door pockets with drinks holders

Dash-mounted cup-holder

Distance to next service indicator

Remote headlamp adjustment from fascia

Entertainment

Stereo radio / CD

Automatic cut-out for radio / CD when intercom activated

Steering wheel remote controls for radio / CD

Interior Features

Jocaste velour trim in front and rear (EasyWipe on XS model)

Speedometer

Rev counter

Front & rear courtesy lights

12V charging sockets on dashboard &

in rear compartment

Business card / parking ticket holder

Exterior Features

Rear tailgate with heated window & wiper

Full size spare wheel

Part colour coded bumpers & door mirrors

16 inch steel wheels (alloy wheels on XS model)

Front & rear fog lights

Side rubbing strips

Access Features

Manual side step; or new, increased power, twin drive, electric side step (electric step controlled from driver cab & self-retracting on handbrake release)

Folding flatbed or EasyGlideTM under-floor ramp High visibility grab handles

Self-retracting wheelchair restraints

Why Carlisle Taxi

There are many good reasons why more people choose Cab Direct –

and choose the E7 – than any other modern taxi manufacturer in the UK.

  • Engineering excellence through a unique joint-manufacturing partnership with Peugeot
  • Solid company background, trading successfully in the taxi market for 20 years
  • Safety-assured with European Whole Vehicle Type Approval
  • Free, no-obligation demonstrations throughout the UK
  • Free delivery anywhere in the UK
  • Service and support from more than 300 local service partners
  • Free technical helpline, open seven days a week

Many companies have tried to copy our vehicles but none match the overall quality of product, backup service and value for money represented by the record-breaking E7™.


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Cabs example

A luminous taxi top sign

taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice. This differs from public transport where the pick-up and drop-off locations are decided by the service provider, not by the customers, although demand responsive transport and share taxis provide a hybrid bus/taxi mode.

There are four distinct forms of taxicab, which can be identified by slightly differing terms in different countries:

  • Hackney carriages, also known as public hire, hailed or street taxis, licensed for hailing throughout communities
  • Private hire vehicles, also known as minicabs or private hire taxis, licensed for pre-booking only
  • Taxibuses, also come in many variations throughout the developing countries as jitneys or jeepney, operating on pre-set routes typified by multiple stops and multiple independent passengers
  • Limousines, specialized vehicle licensed for operation by pre-booking

Although types of vehicles and methods of regulation, hiring, dispatching, and negotiating payment differ significantly from country to country, many common characteristics exist. Disputes over whether ridesharing companies should be regulated as taxicabs resulted in some jurisdictions creating new regulations for these services.

Etymology[edit]

Harry Nathaniel Allen of The New York Taxicab Company, who imported the first 600 gas-powered New York City taxicabs from France in 1907, borrowed the word “taxicab” from London, where the word was in use by early 1907.[1] “Taxicab” is a compound word formed from contractions of “taximeter” and “cabriolet“. “Taximeter” is an adaptation of the German word taxameter, which was itself a variant of the earlier German word “Taxanom”.[2] “Taxe” (pronounced tax-eh) is a German word meaning “tax”, “charge”, or “scale of charges”.[3] The Medieval Latin word “taxa” also means tax or charge. “Taxi” may ultimately be attributed to τάξις from τάσσω[4] meaning “to place in a certain order” in Ancient Greek, as in commanding an orderly battle line,[5] or in ordaining the payment of taxes,[6] to the extent that ταξίδι (taxidi) now meaning “journey” in Greek initially denoted an orderly military march or campaign. Meter is from the Greek μέτρον (metron) meaning “measure”.[7] A “cabriolet” is a type of horse-drawn carriage, from the French word “cabrioler” (“leap, caper”), from Italian “capriolare” (“to jump”), from Latin “capreolus” (“roebuck”, “wild goat”). In most European languages that word has taken on the meaning of a convertible car.

An alternative, folk-etymology holds that it was named for Franz von Taxis, from the house of Thurn and Taxis, a 16th-century postmaster for Philip of Burgundy, and his nephew Johann Baptiste von Taxis, General Postmaster for the Holy Roman Empire. Both instituted fast and reliable postal services (conveying letters, with some post routes transporting people) across Europe.[8]

The taxicabs of Paris were equipped with the first meters beginning on 9 March 1898. They were originally called taxibread, then renamed taximètres on 17 October 1904.[9]

History[edit]

Hackney carriages[edit]

17th century hackney coaches in Sir Walter Gilbey‘s Early Carriages and Roads (1903)

Horse-drawn for-hire hackney carriage services began operating in both Paris and London in the early 17th century. The first documented public hackney coach service for hire was in London in 1605.[10] In 1625 carriages were made available for hire from innkeepers in London and the first taxi rank appeared on the Strand outside the Maypole Inn in 1636.[11] In 1635 the Hackney Carriage Act was passed by Parliament to legalise horse-drawn carriages for hire. Coaches were hired out by innkeepers to merchants and visitors. A further “Ordinance for the Regulation of Hackney-Coachmen in London and the places adjacent” was approved by Parliament in 1654[12] and the first hackney-carriage licences were issued in 1662.

A similar service was started by Nicolas Sauvage in Paris in 1637.[13] His vehicles were known as fiacres, as the main vehicle depot apparently was opposite a shrine to Saint Fiacre. (The term fiacre is still used in French to describe a horse-drawn vehicle for hire, while the German term Fiaker is used, especially in Austria, to refer to the same thing.)

Hansoms[edit]

Drawing of a hansom cab

The hansom cab was designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, an architect from York as a substantial improvement on the old hackney carriages. These two-wheel vehicles were fast, light enough to be pulled by a single horse (making the journey cheaper than travelling in a larger four-wheel coach) were agile enough to steer around horse-drawn vehicles in the notorious traffic jams of nineteenth-century London and had a low centre of gravity for safe cornering. Hansom’s original design was modified by John Chapman and several others to improve its practicability, but retained Hansom’s name.[14]

These soon replaced the hackney carriage as a vehicle for hire. They quickly spread to other cities in the United Kingdom, as well as continental European cities, particularly ParisBerlin, and St Petersburg. The cab was introduced to other British Empire cities and to the United States during the late 19th century, being most commonly used in New York City.

The first cab service in Toronto, “The City”, was established in 1837 by Thornton Blackburn, an ex-slave whose escape when captured in Detroit was the impetus for the Blackburn Riot.[15]

Modern taxicabs[edit]

1897 Daimler Victoria was the first gasoline-powered taxicab

Electric battery-powered taxis became available at the end of the 19th century. In London, Walter Bersey designed a fleet of such cabs and introduced them to the streets of London on 19 August 1897.[16] They were soon nicknamed ‘Hummingbirds’ due to the idiosyncratic humming noise they made.[11] In the same year in New York City, the Samuel’s Electric Carriage and Wagon Company began running 12 electric hansom cabs.[17] The company ran until 1898 with up to 62 cabs operating until it was reformed by its financiers to form the Electric Vehicle Company.[18]

Soviet GAZ M-1 taxis in 1938

The modern taximeter was invented and perfected by a trio of German inventors; Wilhelm Friedrich Nedler, Ferdinand Dencker and Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav Bruhn.[19] The Daimler Victoria—the world’s first gasoline-powered taximeter-cab—was built by Gottlieb Daimler in 1897 and began operating in Stuttgart in 1897.[20] Gasoline-powered taxicabs began operating in Paris in 1899, in London in 1903, and in New York in 1907. The New York taxicabs were initially imported from France by Harry N. Allen owner of the Allen-Kingston Motor Car Company.[21] Their manufacturing took place at Bristol Engineering in Bristol, Connecticut where the first domestically produced Taxicabs were built in 1908, designed by Fred E. Moskovics who had worked at Daimler in the late 1890s. Albert F. Rockwell was the owner of Bristol and his wife suggested he paint his taxicabs yellow to maximise his vehicles’ visibility.[22] Moskovics was one of the organizers of the first Yellow Taxicab Company in New York.[23]

Taxicabs proliferated around the world in the early 20th century. The first major innovation after the invention of the taximeter occurred in the late 1940s, when two-way radios first appeared in taxicabs. Radios enabled taxicabs and dispatch offices to communicate and serve customers more efficiently than previous methods, such as using callboxes. The next major innovation occurred in the 1980s when computer assisted dispatching was first introduced.[citation needed]

As military and emergency transport[edit]

Paris taxis carried 6000 soldiers to the front during the First Battle of the Marne

Paris taxis played a memorable part in the French victory at First Battle of the Marne in the First World War. On 7 September 1914, the Military Governor of Paris, Joseph Gallieni, gathered about six hundred taxicabs at Les Invalides in central Paris to carry soldiers to the front at Nanteuil-le Haudoin, fifty kilometers away. Within twenty-four hours about six thousand soldiers and officers were moved to the front. Each taxi carried five soldiers, four in the back and one next to the driver. Only the back lights of the taxis were lit; the drivers were instructed to follow the lights of the taxi ahead. The Germans were surprised and were pushed back by the French and British armies. Most of the taxis were demobilized on 8 September but some remained longer to carry the wounded and refugees. The taxis, following city regulations, dutifully ran their meters. The French treasury reimbursed the total fare of 70,012 francs. The military impact of the soldiers moved by taxi was small in the huge scale of the Battle of the Marne, but the effect on French morale was enormous; it became the symbol of the solidarity between the French army and citizens. It was also the first recorded large-scale use of motorized infantry in battle.[24][25]

The Birmingham pub bombings on 21 November 1974, which killed 21 people and injured 182, presented emergency services with unprecedented peacetime demands. According to eyewitness accounts, the fire officer in charge, knowing the 40 ambulances he requested were unlikely to be available, requested the Taxi Owners Association to transport the injured to the nearby Birmingham Accident Hospital and Birmingham General Hospital.[26]

Vehicles[edit]

LTI TX2 cab

Taxi services are typically provided by automobilesbut in some countries various human-powered vehicles, (such as the rickshaw or pedicab) and animal-powered vehicles (such as the Hansom cab) or even boats (such as water taxies or gondolas) are also used or have been used historically. In Western Europe, Bissau, and to an extent, Australia, it is not uncommon for expensive cars such as Mercedes-Benz to be the taxicab of choice. Often this decision is based upon the perceived reliability of, and warranty offered with these vehicles. These taxi-service vehicles are almost always equipped with four-cylinder turbodiesel engines and relatively low levels of equipment, and are not considered luxury cars. This has changed though in countries such as Denmark, where tax regulation makes it profitable to sell the vehicles after a few years of service, which requires the cars to be well equipped and kept in good condition.[citation needed]

Wheelchair-accessible taxicabs[edit]

Wheelchair accessible maxicab, unloading a wheelchair-bound passenger in Australia

In recent years, some companies have been adding specially modified vehicles capable of transporting wheelchair-using passengers to their fleets. Such taxicabs are variously called accessible taxis, wheelchair- or wheelchair-accessible taxicabs, modified taxicabs, or “maxicabs”.

Wheelchair taxicabs are most often specially modified vans or minivans. Wheelchair-using passengers are loaded, with the help of the driver, via a lift or, more commonly, a ramp, at the rear of the vehicle. This feature is however a subject for concern amongst Licensing Authorities who feel that the wheelchair passenger could not easily exit the vehicle in the event of accident damage to the rear door. The latest generation of accessible taxis features side loading with emergency egress possible from either of the 2 side doors as well as the rear. The wheelchair is secured using various systems, commonly including some type of belt and clip combination, or wheel locks. Some wheelchair taxicabs are capable of transporting only one wheelchair-using passenger at a time, and can usually accommodate 4 to 6 additional able-bodied passengers.

Wheelchair taxicabs are part of the regular fleet in most cases, and so are not reserved exclusively for the use of wheelchair users. They are often used by able-bodied people who need to transport luggage, small items of furniture, animals, and other items. Because of this, and since only a small percentage of the average fleet is modified, wheelchair users must often wait for significantly longer periods when calling for a cab, and flagging a modified taxicab on the street is much more difficult.

Other[edit]

Three-wheeled Coco taxis in HavanaCuba

A “bicitaxi” (identified by its license plate) in Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl, Mexico

Taxicabs in less developed places can be a completely different experience, such as the antique French cars typically found in Cairo.[citation needed] However, starting in March 2006, newer modern taxicabs entered the service operated by various private companies. Taxicabs differ in other ways as well: London’s black cabs have a large compartment beside the driver for storing bags, while many fleets of regular taxis also include wheelchair accessible taxicabs among their numbers (see above). Although taxicabs have traditionally been sedansminivanshatchbacks and even SUV taxicabs are becoming increasingly common. In many cities, limousines operate as well, usually in competition with taxicabs and at higher fares.

Recently, with growing concern for the environment, there have been solar powered taxicabs. On 20 April 2008, a “solar taxi tour” was launched that aimed to tour 15 countries in 18 months in a solar taxi that can reach speeds of 90 km/h with zero emission. The aim of the tour was to spread knowledge about environmental protection.[27]

Livery[edit]

Most taxi companies have some sort of livery on the vehicle, depending on the type of taxi (taxi, cab, private hire, chauffeur), country, region and operator.

Hiring[edit]

Toyota Crown Comfort taxicabs lined up in front of Kowloon Waterfront in Hong Kong

Most places allow a taxi to be “hailed” or “flagged” on the side of the street as it is approaching. Another option is a taxi stand (sometimes also called a “cab stand,” “hack stand,” “taxi rank,” or “cab rank”). Taxi stands are usually located at airports, railway stations, major retail areas (malls), hotels and other places where a large number of passengers are likely to be found. In some places —Japan, for example— taxi stands are arranged according to the size of the taxis, so that large- and small-capacity cabs line up separately. The taxi at the front of the line is due (barring unusual circumstances) for the next fare.

Passengers also commonly call a central dispatch office for taxis. In some jurisdictions, private hire vehicles can only be hired from the dispatch office, and must be assigned each fare by the office by radio or phone. Picking up passengers off the street in these areas can lead to suspension or revocation of the driver’s taxi license, or even prosecution.

Other areas may have a mix of the two systems, where drivers may respond to radio calls and also pick up street fares.

Passengers may also hire taxicabs via mobile apps. While not directly involving the call center, the taxis are still monitored by the dispatcher through GPS tracking. Many taxicab companies, including GettEasy Taxi, and GrabTaxi provide mobile apps.

Dispatching[edit]

In this scene from It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, a yellow cab driver, played by Peter Falk, contacts his dispatch through a callbox on the street. Two-way radio communication had not become a standard by the time the film was made in the early 1960s.

Taxis waiting for customers in Cologne, Germany.

A taxi in Venice.

The activity of taxi fleets is usually monitored and controlled by a central office, which provides dispatching, accounting, and human resources services to one or more taxi companies. Taxi owners and drivers usually communicate with the dispatch office through either a 2-way radio or a computer terminal (called a mobile data terminal). Before the innovation of radio dispatch in the 1950s, taxi drivers would use a callbox—a special telephone at a taxi stand—to contact the dispatch office.[28]

When a customer calls for a taxi, a trip is dispatched by either radio or computer, via an in-vehicle mobile data terminal, to the most suitable cab. The most suitable cab may either be the one closest to the pick-up address (often determined by GPS coordinates nowadays) or the one that was the first to book into the “zone” surrounding the pickup address. Cabs are sometimes dispatched from their taxi stands; a call to “Top of the 2” means that the first cab in line at stand #2 is supposed to pick someone up.

In offices using radio dispatch, taxi locations are often tracked using magnetic pegs on a “board”—a metal sheet with an engraved map of taxi zones. In computerized dispatch, the status of taxis is tracked by the computer system.

Taxi frequencies are generally licensed in duplex pairs. One frequency is used for the dispatcher to talk to the cabs, and a second frequency is used to the cabs to talk back. This means that the drivers generally cannot talk to each other. Some cabs have a CB radio in addition to the company radio so they can speak to each other.

In the United States, there is a Taxicab Radio Service with pairs assigned for this purpose. A taxi company can also be licensed in the Business Radio Service. Business frequencies in the UHF range are also licensed in pairs to allow for repeaters, though taxi companies usually use the pair for duplex communications.

Taxi dispatch is evolving in connection to the telecom sector with the advent of smart-phones. In some countries such as Australia, Canada, Germany, the UK and USA, smartphone applications are emerging that connect taxi drivers directly with passengers for the purpose of dispatching taxi jobs, launching new battles for the marketing of such apps over the potential mass of Taxi users.

Taxi fares are set by the state and city where they are permitted to operate. The fare includes the ‘drop’, a set amount that is tallied for getting into the taxi plus the ‘per mile’ rate as has been set by the City. The taxi meters track time as well as miles in an average taxi fare.

Drivers and companies[edit]

In the United States, a nut is industry slang for the amount of money a driver has to pay upfront to lease a taxi for a specific period of time. Once that amount is collected in fare, the driver then begins to make a profit. A driver “on the nut” is trying to earn back the initial cost. This varies from city to city though, in Las Vegas, Nevada, all taxicabs are owned and operated by the companies and all drivers are employees (hence no initial cost and earn a percentage of each fare). So “on the nut” simply means to be next in a taxi stand to receive a passenger. Additionally, some cab companies are owned cooperatively, with profits shared through democratic governance [29].

Regulatory compliance and training[edit]

Australia[edit]

Different states have different regulations for taxi driver registration and compliance:

  • New South Wales: There is an annual taxi licence determination which sets the maximum number of taxis allowed in specified areas. To be eligible you must have a taxi licence which is available from ABLIS.[30] The industry body is the NSW Taxi Council[31] and it provides a pathway to becoming a taxi driver.
  • Northern Territory: Apply for a Commercial Passenger Vehicle licence (H endorsement) and ID card.[32]
  • Queensland: Apply for a driver authorisation.[33]
  • South Australia: Apply for South Australian driver accreditation with the SA government[34] then complete training with a registered training provider.
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria: Drivers apply to the Taxi Services Commission to get a driver accreditation[35]
  • Western Australia

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand taxi drivers fall under the definition of a Small Passenger Service Vehicle driver. They must have a P (passenger) endorsement on their driver licence.[36] Until 1 October 2017, all drivers wanting to obtain a P endorsement had to complete a P endorsement course,[37] but that requirement was removed as a result of lobbying by Uber who had been flouting the law.[38]

Drivers must comply with work-time rules and maintain a logbook, with the onus on training falling on companies and drivers since the P endorsement course was abandoned.

The New Zealand Taxi Federation[39] is the national advocacy group for taxi companies within New Zealand.

Navigation[edit]

The inside of a Japanese taxicab in Kyoto with GPS navigation on board.

Most experienced taxi drivers who have been working in the same city or region for a while would be expected to know the most important streets and places where their customers request to go. However, to aid the process of manual navigation and the taxi driver’s memory (and the customer’s as well at times) a cab driver is usually equipped with a detailed roadmap of the area in which they work. There is also an increasing use of GPS driven navigational systems in wealthier countries.

In London, despite the complex and haphazard road layout, such aids have only recently been employed by a small number of ‘black cab’ taxi (as opposed to minicab) drivers. Instead, they are required to undergo a demanding process of learning and testing called The Knowledge. This typically takes around three years and equips them with a detailed command of 25,000 streets within central London, major routes outside this area, and all buildings and other destinations to which passengers may ask to be taken.[40]

Environmental concerns[edit]

A Brazilian Fiat Siena Tetrafuel taxi in São Paulo runs as a flexible-fuel or as a bi-fuel with CNG

Taxicabs have been both criticized for creating pollution and also praised as an environmentally responsible alternative to private car use.[41]

One study, published in the journal Atmospheric Environment in January 2006, showed that the level of pollution that Londoners are exposed to differs according to the mode of transport that they use. When in the back seat of a taxicab people were exposed the most, while walking exposing people to the lowest amount of pollution.[42]

Alternative energy and propulsion[edit]

Singapore Toyota Prius hybrid taxicab

Kumamoto City incorporated the Nissan Leaf electric taxi to its taxi fleet in February 2011

Ford Falcon LPG taxicab in Perth, Australia

In Australia, nearly all taxis run on LPG, as well as the growing fleet of hybrids.[citation needed] Argentina and the main cities of Brazil have large fleets of taxis running on natural gas. Many Brazilian taxis are flexible-fuel vehicles running on sugarcane ethanol, and some are equipped to run on either natural gas or as a flex-fuel. At least two Brazilian car markers sell these type of bi-fuel vehicles.[43][44][45]

Malaysia and Singapore have many of their taxicabs running on compressed natural gas (CNG).

San Francisco became in 2005 one of the first cities to introduce hybrids for taxi service, with a fleet of 15 Ford Escape Hybrids, and by 2009 the original Escape Hybrids were retired after 300,000 miles per vehicle.[46] In 2007 the city approved the Clean Air Taxi Grant Program in order to encourage cab companies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, by providing incentives of US$2,000 per new alternative fuel vehicle on a first-come, first-served basis.[47][48] Out of a total of 1,378 eligible vehicles (wheelchair-accessible taxi-vans are excluded) 788 are alternative fuel vehicles, representing 57% of the San Francisco’s taxicab fleet by March 2010. Gasoline-electric hybrids accounted for 657 green taxis and compressed natural gas vehicles for 131.[47][48][49]

As of mid-2009 New York City had 2,019 hybrid taxis and 12 clean diesel vehicles,[50] representing 15% of New York’s 13,237 taxis in service, the most in any city in North America. At this time owners began retiring its original hybrid fleet after 300,000 and 350,000 miles per vehicle.[46][51] Two attempts by the Bloomberg Administration to implement policies to force the replacement of all New York’s 13,000 taxis for hybrids by 2012 have been blocked by court rulings.[52][53]

Chicago is following New York City’s lead by proposing a mandate for Chicago’s entire fleet of 6,700 taxicabs to become hybrid by 1 January 2014. As of 2008 Chicago’s fleet had only 50 hybrid taxicabs.[54] In 2008 Boston mandated that its entire taxi fleet must be converted to hybrids by 2015.[55] Arlington, Virginia also has a small fleet of 85 environmentally friendly hybrid cabs introduced in early 2008. The green taxi expansion is part of a county campaign known as Fresh AIRE, or Arlington Initiative to Reduce Emissions, and included a new all-hybrid taxi company called EnviroCAB, which became the first all-hybrid taxicab fleet in the United States, and the first carbon-negative taxicab company in the world[56][57][58] A similar all-hybrid taxicab company, Clean Air Cab, was launched in Phoenix, Arizona in October 2009.[58]

In Japan, electric taxicabs are becoming increasingly popular. In 2009, battery-swap company Better Place teamed with the Japanese government to trial a fleet of electric taxis with the Better Place battery-swap system in Yokohama.[59] In 2010, the taxi company Hinomaru Linousine Company launched two Mitsubishi i MiEV electric taxicabs in Tokyo. Both taxicabs had female drivers and were branded under ZeRO TAXI livery.[60]

Hybrid taxis are becoming more and more common in Canada, with all new taxis in British Columbia being hybrids, or other fuel efficient vehicles, such as the Toyota Prius or Toyota Corolla. Hybrids such as the Ford Escape Hybrid are slowly being added to the taxicab fleet in Mexico City.[citation needed]

Other cities where taxi service is available with hybrid vehicles include Tokyo, London, Sydney, Rome and Singapore.[61] Seoul introduced the first LPI hybrid taxi in December 2009. The internal combustion engine runs on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a fuel.[62]

In 2010 Beijing, China introduced electric taxis. A trial run began in March 2010 with taxis being cheaper than their regular gasoline counterparts.[63]

International trade association[edit]

The Taxicab, Limousine & Paratransit Association (TLPA) was established in 1917 in the United States, and is a non-profit trade association of and for the private passenger transportation industry. Today its membership spans the globe and includes 1,100 taxicab companies, executive sedan and limousine services, airport shuttle fleets, non-emergency medical transportation companies, and paratransit services.

In April 2011, TLPA announced a nationwide “Transportation on Patrol” initiative. The TOP program gives local police departments the materials they need to train volunteer taxi drivers to be good witnesses and watch out for criminal behavior.[64]

Occupational hazards[edit]

Taxicab drivers are at risk for homicide at a far higher rate than the general working population in the United States (7.4 per 100,000 and 0.37 per 100,000, respectively). In efforts to reduce homicides, bulletproof partitions were introduced in many taxicabs in the 1990s, and in the 21st century, security cameras were added to many taxicabs. Security cameras have been shown to be more effective when implemented by cities and not taxicab companies.[65] Cab drivers also work together to protect one another both from physical threats and passengers who refuse to pay.[66]

Regulation[edit]

Support of deregulation[edit]

Supporters of taxicab deregulation may argue that deregulation causes the following benefits:[67]

  • lower prices, because more taxis are competing on the market;
  • lower operating costs, incentivized by the competition;
  • the competition adds quality and the pressure to enhance one’s reputation;
  • new innovations such as shared-ride markets and special services for the disabled, new market niches;
  • the demand for taxi services increases, as the prices fall and the quality improves.

However, there appears to be a consensus that taxi deregulation has been less impressive than advocates had hoped.[67] Possible reasons include overestimation of what deregulation could deliver and insufficiently thorough deregulation[67] Some also emphasize that the strong cab-driver subculture, itself, (“The Last American Cowboys”), provides its own form of informal regulation.[68]

Deregulation advocates may claim that the taxi service level increases most in the poorest sections of the city. The effect is highest in peak hours and bad weather, when the demand is highest.[67]

Deregulation advocates also may claim that, in a deregulated environment:[67]

  • black market taxis become legal, possibly eliminating their problems,
  • cities save money, as they do not have to plan and enforce regulation.

In nearly all deregulating cities the number of taxis increased, more people were employed as drivers, and deregulation advocates claim needs were better satisfied.[67]

Existing taxi companies may try to limit competition by potential new entrants. For example, in New York City the monopoly advantage for taxi license holders was $590 million in the early 1980s. The city has 1400 fewer licenses than in 1937. Proponents of deregulation argue that the main losers are the car-less poor and the disabled.[67] Taxi owners form a strong lobby network that marginalizes drivers and taxi users. It also pays local government officials to uphold taxi regulation.[69] The regulators usually do not wish to rise against the taxi-owner lobby.[67] The politicians do not want taxi drivers to have a negative opinion of them.[70]

Taxi deregulation proponents claims that immigrants and other poor minorities suffer most from taxi regulation, because the work requires relatively little education. Regulation makes entrance to the taxi business particularly difficult for them.[71] The elderly, disabled, housewives and poor use taxis more often than others.[67]

According to Moore and Rose, it is better to address potential problems of deregulation directly instead of regulating the number of taxi licences. For example, if the regulators want to increase safety, they should make safety statutes or publish a public list of safe taxi operators.[72]

Proponents of deregulation also claim that if officials want to regulate prices they should standardize the measures rather than command prices. For example, they may require that any distance tariffs are set for the first 1/5 miles and then for every subsequent 1/3 miles, to make it easier to compare the prices of different taxis. They should not prohibit other pricing than distance pricing.[67] Deregulation advocates claim that regulators only have a very limited information on the market.[67]

Black market taxis often have problems with safety, poor customer service, and fares. This situation is made worse because customer who patronize such taxis cannot complain to the police or media. However, proponent of taxi deregulation argue that when these illegal taxis become legalized, their behavior will improve and complaints to officials about these formerly illegal taxis would be allowed.[67]

Taxi companies claim that deregulation may lead to an unstable taxi market. However, one pro-deregulation study by Kitch, Isaacson and Kasper claims that the previous argument is a myth because it ignores the U.S. free taxi competition up to 1929.[67]

Airport taxis as a special case[edit]

Some deregulation proponents are less opposed to airport taxi regulation than to regulation of other taxi services. They argue that if an airport regulates prices for taxis in its taxi queues, such regulation has fewer disadvantages than citywide regulation. An airport may determine prices or organize different queues for taxi services of different qualities and prices. It can be argued whether rules set by the owner of an airport are regulation or just a business model.[67]

Partial deregulation as a failure[edit]

Proponents of deregulation argue that partial deregulation is the cause of many cases of deregulation failing to achieve desirable results in United States cities. Many U.S. cities retained regulations on prices and services while allowing for free entrance to taxi business. Deregulation advocates argue that this prevented market mechanisms from solving information problems because new entrants have found it difficult to win new customers using new services or cheap prices. Also, ride-sharing has often been prohibited.[67]

Mitsubishi Taxi in Ghana’s Central Region

Often officials have also prohibited pricing that would have made short rides in sparsely populated areas profitable. Thus drivers have refused to take such customers. Therefore, partial deregulation is not always enough to enhance the situation.[67] One study claims that deregulation was applied to a too small area.[67]

In the taxi regulation report by U.S. FTC it was concluded that there are not grounds for limiting the number of taxi companies and cars. These limitations cause a disproportionate burden on low income people. It is better to increase the pay for unprofitable areas than to force the taxis to serve these areas.[73]

According to the report, the experience on free entry and price competition are mainly positive: prices have fallen, waiting times were shortened, the market shares of the biggest companies have fallen, and city councils have saved time from licensing and fare setting. However, the airports should either set their own price ceilings or allow for price competition by altering the queue system.[73]

Opposition to deregulation[edit]

Opponents of taxi deregulation argue that deregulation will result in high taxi driver turnover rates which may cause the number of less-qualified taxi drivers to increase, dishonest business practices such as price gouging (especially on airport routes) and circuitous routing, and poor customer service.[74]

Connecticut General Assembly report argues that deregulation fails to cause price decreases because taxi passengers typically do not price comparison shop when searching for taxicabs, and that fares usually increased with deregulation because the higher supply of taxis caused drivers’ earning potential to decrease.[75] This report claims that deregulation resulted in dramatically increased taxi supply, especially at already overserved airport locations, fare increases in every city, and an increase in short-trip refusals by taxicab drivers.[75]

This report argues that deregulation has led to undesirable results in several American cities. Seattle deregulated taxis in 1980, resulting in a high supply of taxicabs, variable rates, price gouging, short-haul refusals, poor treatment of passengers.[75] As a result, Seattle re-regulated in 1984, reinstating a restriction on taxicab licenses and fare controls.[75] In St. Louis, deregulation produced a 35% rise in taxi fares, and taxicab drivers complained of waiting hours at airports for customers at taxicab stands.[75] Taxicab companies claimed they increased fares in order to make up for lost competition resulting from the increased supply of taxis. As a result, the St. Louis City Council froze new taxicab licenses in 2002.[75]

A study of the deregulation of taxis in Sweden in 1991 showed that the taxicab supply increased, but average fares also increased in almost all cases.[76] Specifically, average fares per hour increased for all trips. Average fares also increased for fares calculated by distance (per kilometer) in almost every category studied – for all customer-paid trips in municipalities of all 3 sizes (small, medium, and large) and increased for municipality-paid trips in small and large municipalities; fares only decreased for municipality-paid trips in medium-sized municipalities that were calculated per kilometer.[76] Deregulation also resulted in decreased taxicab productivity and decreased taxi-company revenues.[76] This study concluded that deregulation resulted in increased fares especially in rural areas and the authors argued that the increased fares were due to low taxi company revenues after deregulation.[76]

Taxi companies claim that deregulation would cause problems, raise prices and lower service level on certain hours or in certain places.

The medallion system[when defined as?][77] has been defended by some experts. They argue that the medallion system is similar to a brand-name capital asset and enforces quality of service because quality service results in higher ridership, thus increasing the value of owning the medallion.[78] They argue that issuing new medallions would decrease the medallion value and thus the incentive for the medallion owner to provide quality service or comply with city regulations.[78] They also argue that the medallion may be preferable to alternate systems of regulation (such as fines, required bonds with seizures of interest payments on those bonds for violations, or licensing of all would-be taxis with revocation of that license for violations) because fines are difficult to collect, license revocation may not be a sufficient deterrent for profitable violations such as price cheating, and because using penalties on bond interest payments give regulators an incentive to impose penalties to collect revenue (rather than for legitimate violations).[78] Medallions do not earn interest and thus inappropriate seizures of interest by regulators is not possible.[78]

Results of deregulation in specific localities[edit]

The results of taxi deregulation in specific cities has varied widely.

A study of taxi deregulation in nine United States cities found that the number of taxi firms increased, but large incumbent firms continued to dominate all but one of the nine cities.[79] The taxi prices did not fall in real terms, but increased in every city studied.[79] Turnover was concentrated among small operators (usually one-cab operators); little turnover occurred among medium and large new firms and no exit by a large incumbent firm occurred since deregulation.[79] Productivity decreased by at least one-third in all four cities for which sufficient data was obtainable; the authors argued that decreases of this magnitude in productivity have serious economic consequences for taxi drivers, by shifting the industry from employee drivers to lease drivers and causing the average taxi driver to earn a lower income.[79] Innovation in service did not occur in the deregulated cities because such innovations (especially shared-ride service) were doubted by taxi operators to be justified by demand and because the operators viewed that they would cause a net decrease in revenue.[79] Discounts were offered in certain deregulated cities; however, these discounts were small (10% typically) and were also offered in some regulated cities.[79] The study found a lack of service innovation and little change in level of service despite the increased number of taxicabs.[79]

In Japan, taxi deregulation resulted in modest decreases in taxi fares (primarily among long distance trips); however, Japanese taxi fares are still very high (still the highest in the world).[80] Also, taxi driver incomes decreased, and the earnings of taxi companies also decreased substantially.[80] Deregulation failed to increase taxicab ridership enough to compensate taxi companies for those losses.[80] The burden of deregulation fell disproportionately on taxi drivers because taxi companies increased the number of taxis rented to drivers (to make more money from rental fees), which resulted in stiff competition among drivers, decreasing their earnings.[80] Transportation professor Seiji Abe of Kansai University considered deregulation to be a failure in the Japanese taxi industry (despite what he considers success in other Japanese industries).[80]

In the Netherlands, taxi deregulation in 2000 failed to reach policy objectives of strengthening the role of the taxi in the overall Dutch transport system.[81] Instead, the deregulation resulted in unanticipated fare increases (not decreases) in large cities, and bad driver behavior became a serious problem.[81] Local authorities had lost their say in the market due to the deregulation, and thus were unable to correct these problems.[81]

In South Africa, taxi deregulation has resulted in the emergence of taxi cartels which carry out acts of gun violence against rival cartels in attempts to monopolize desirable routes.[82] In South Africa, taxis were deregulated in 1987, resulting in fierce competition among new drivers, who then organized into rival cartels in the absence of government regulation, and which used violence and gangland tactics to protect and expand their territories.[82] These “taxi wars” have resulted in between 120–330 deaths annually since deregulation.[83] These taxi cartels have engaged in anticompetitive price-fixing.[84]

In New Zealand taxi deregulation increased the supply of taxi services and initially decreased the prices remarkably in big cities, whereas the effects in smaller cities were small.[67]

In Ireland, taxi deregulation decreased waiting times so much that the liberalization became very popular among the public.[dubious ][citation needed] The number of companies was increased and the quality of cars and drives did not fall.[dubious ][citation needed] Some have argued that the regulation should be completely abolished, not just cut down.[67] Minister Alan Kelly held a review of Ireland’s taxi industry after Ireland’s national broadcaster RTÉ broadcast an investigation into the taxi industry 10 years after de-regulation.[85]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

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